Centrifugal pump has simple structure, small volume, flow stability, and easy to manufacture and easy to maintain, and a series of advantages, is widely used in the process of chemical production, become the indispensable fluid conveying equipment.
The classification of the centrifugal pump single water pump
: only one of the pump impeller, single-stage centrifugal pump is a kind of widely used of the pump.
Because of the liquid in the pump only once energized, so low head.
Multistage pump: with two or more than two impeller of a centrifugal pump called multistage centrifugal pump.
The higher the series, the more pressure.
Multistage pump is in and out of the water with middle, stick together, also rely on the rotation of the impeller in the centrifugal force, and material.
Multistage pump is accomplished by the change of pump cavity volume of suction, compression and exhaust, so it can be variable volume of centrifugal pump.
According to the impeller impeller impeller suction way points generally consists of two circular plate and cover plate between several pieces of curved blade and hub, can be divided into open and closed, half closed three types.
Impeller with a key fastened to the shaft, the shaft rotate by the prime mover, through the blades of the prime mover energy to a liquid.
The role of the impeller is the prime mover's mechanical energy directly to the liquid, in order to increase the static pressure of the liquid and the kinetic energy (
The main can increase the static pressure)
Also can be divided into single suction and double suction impeller two kinds.
Single suction centrifugal pump, the impeller is only one inlet.
On both sides: double suction centrifugal pump impeller inlet.
Its flow rate than single suction pump twice, can be approximately regarded as two single suction water pump impeller together back to back.
According to the head in one, the low pressure pump: head & le;
20 m 2, medium pressure pump: head & ge;
100 m 3, high-pressure pump, head & ge;
100 m by the pump shaft location points and pump shaft of pump shaft commonly used material is carbon steel and stainless steel.
Shaft is one of the important parts, mechanical energy transfer engine torque to the impeller through it.
Function is used to transfer torque of pump shaft, impeller rotation.
Impeller and shaft connected by key, because this kind of connection mode can only torque is not fixed axial position of the impeller, so in the water pump with a collar and lock nut to fixed axial location of the impeller.
The impeller lock nut and bushing axial positioning, in order to prevent the lock nut back clasp, to prevent the pump reversal, especially to die erste installation pumps or after overhaul the pumps have to be turned to check according to regulations, to ensure that in accordance with regulations to.
Horizontal pump, pump shaft in a horizontal position.
Are characterized by their smooth operation, zero leakage, low noise, low failure rate, convenient maintenance, covers an area of more advantages.
Vertical pump: the pump shaft is located in the vertical position.
Used for conveying abrasive, coarse material, high concentration of slurry, don't need any shaft seal and shaft seal water, under the working condition of insufficient intake can work normally.
According to the purpose and conveying fluid properties between water pump, mud pump, acid, alkali pump, oil pump, sand pump, cryogenic pump, heat pump, shielding pump is a wide variety of centrifugal pump, such as various types of pump structure, though different, but the main components are basically the same, mainly include pump body, impeller, pump shaft, shaft seal, bearing box, coupling and other parts.
And idler pulley the snail's shell and the role of the idler pulley: one is the liquid of the impeller outlet, is introduced into the next level of pump impeller entrance or export;
Second, high speed liquid part of the kinetic energy of the impeller outlet can transition to static pressure.
General single stage and open the multistage pump often set the volute, sectional multi-stage pump adopts idler pulley.
Mechanical seal mechanical seal is to rely on a pair or number to make the relative sliding face perpendicular to the axis in the fluid pressure and compensation mechanism of elastic (
Or magnetic force)
Keep posted under combined with auxiliary seal leakage of shaft seal device and resistance.
Coupling shaft coupling is used to join two axis of different institutions (
Driving shaft and driven shaft)
Rotate to make joint torque of mechanical parts.
The overloaded power transmission at high speed, some coupling and buffer, vibration and enhance the role of shaft system dynamic performance.
Coupling consists of two parts, respectively, and the driving shaft and driven shaft connection.
Most general engine by means of coupling machine connected with work.
Bearing and the bearing box fixed bearing, bearing box is used at the same time, as the load bearing lubricating oil or cooling liquid container.
The pump shaft bearing: support, essence is the ability to bear radial load.
It is used to fixed shaft, the shaft can realize the rotation, and to control the movement of the axial and radial.
Centrifugal water pump most of the rolling bearing and rolling bearing components (
Rolling body, inner and outer ring raceway and cage)
All are not pure roll.
Each element contact area is small, rolling bearing pressure per unit area is often a lot, if bad lubrication, components easy to glue, or because of friction heat up too high, cause temper rolling body, make the bearing failure, so bearing moment should be in the midst of an oil film coating.
Shaft sealing shaft sealing device is mainly to prevent the liquid leakage and air into the pump, seal and prevent air intake pump in order to achieve the purpose of cavitation.
Shaft seal: with skeleton rubber seal, packing and mechanical seal.
Packing is a common shaft sealing device, by the shaft sleeve and packing, water seal, water seal ring and packing gland and other parts.
Appropriate to use, gland elastic, too loose, can not meet the sealing effect;
Pressure too tight, the pump shaft and packing mechanical wear, consumed power;
If too tight, it could cause holding shaft phenomenon, cause severe fever and wear.
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is increasingly important, the researchers believe manufacturers should pay close attention to their results.
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